地図の編集方法を学ぶ

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このページは、エンドユーザーや運転する一般の人々にとって役立つ地図とするため、エリアマネージャやその他の編集者の助けとなることを目的としています。ツールの微妙な制限によって発生する一般的なミスにより、あなたがしなければならない修正を最小限とします。Waze Map Editorの使い方、地図の問題点確認して解決する方法、道路の命名規則、一般的なFAQなどエリアマネージャにとって役に立つページはすでに多く用意されています。同じ情報源からの編集は、地図の統一に大いに貢献します。自己流の編集で埋め尽くされる前にWazeの地図編集の様々な方法をここで学んでください。

このページまたはWikiの他のページで間違いを見つけたなら、太字とするか、(どうすべきか自信があるならば)ページの加筆、修正を行なってください。もしくは、Wikiの改善フォーラムにコメントすることもできます。


全体的な目標

使いやすさ

地図に関して、編集の初歩と目標は小さな画面上で簡単でたどれる地図をドライバーに提供することです。 そのためには、実用的な単語での指示が必要です。

シンプル

目に見える車道すべての模型をつくることが目標ではありません。 そうすることでしばしば不必要な複雑さを生みます。それは雑然とした地図、混乱させる文字の案内、そして多くの地図の追加メンテナンスをもたらすでしょう。

維持

Wazeを使って運転している人々により道路は、ルート検索の最適化で使われる特定の情報(例えば、平均速度)を保持します。 しかし、その道路の一部が削除されるとき、その情報は廃棄されてしまいます。 もつれた道路を削除し、新しい道路をつくる方法より、もつれを解いて再利用する「リサイクル」する方が良い方法です。

In Practice

進行方向別に道路を分割すべき場合


一般的に、高速道路または都市高速道路が進行方向別に道路が分割されます。

When initially reviewing whether to split or "un-split" (merge back together) a roadway, consider these points first:

  1. If a road it is currently working with no problem reports, consider leaving it as is.
  2. After reviewing the criteria for when to split or not split a road, if you cannot be sure which way to go, consider sending a permalink of the road to the map editing forums to get additional feedback from other editors.
  3. Try to avoid switching roads back and forth between being split and "un-split". For example, if most of the road is clearly split and only parts would be considered a single two-way road, consider leaving it all split. The same goes for the opposite situation.


Some formal guidelines -

道路を分割すべき時 :

  • GPS tracks show a clearly definable gap (blank area) between the color-by-azimuth arrows at the 100m zoom level.
  • U-Turns are required to properly make turns that are blocked by a median.
  • It is an Interstate Highway (USA) or other Limited Access Highway using the "Freeway" road type.

道路を分割すべきでない時 :

  • There is a curb or non-drivable median less than 5m wide between lanes of travel (see exceptions above).
  • The non-drivable median is interrupted by a cross segment at most intersections.
  • There is a center turn lane (any width) between directions of travel. Splitting this type of road created problems when people turn from the middle lane because there is no road for the navigation to follow.
  • (Just because) Google Maps or other mapping source show it as a split road.

Remember that splitting and unsplitting each comes with its own set of problems. Each situation is unique and some issues may be more manageable with a single two-way road, and some may work fine with a split road. Consider every aspect of routing, and carefully examine each junction before splitting or unsplitting. Regardless of whether you're splitting or unsplitting, remember that you might cause more problems than you solve and you might have to put it back the way it was before.

2つの一方通行道路を"1つに統合"する方法

Sorry to say it, but there is no easy way to merge two one-way roads back into a two-way road--which is why you should always give a lot of thought before splitting a road in the first place. And then think some more.

When you come across a road in your area that has been split but shouldn't have been--just look for the highest concentration of problem reports, and you'll find them!--you have some major map surgery ahead of you. Basically, for the length of the road, you're going to:

  1. delete road segments on one side or the other*, including segments that connect the two sides;
  2. remove all "orphaned" junctions;
  3. change the direction of the preserved segments to two-way;
  4. check/fix the connectivity of all the roads already connect to the side you kept;
  5. connect (and set connectivity) of all the roads that used to be connected to the other side;
  6. make sure all the new two-way segments are connected; and
  7. adjust the geometry to move the two-way road segments to the middle of the road.

'*' It usually saves time to preserve whichever side is already connected to more roads, so you may want to delete one side in some places, and the other side in other places. Just remember to re-connect them later.

It isn't difficult once you have gone through the process a couple times.

Caveat: if you decide to be clever and edit the road properties of multiple segments at a time, familiarize yourself with the known problems with mass-editing first. It can be done--but if you're not careful, you'll find that all the road segments have reverted to Streets...in Alabama...and any alternate road names will be lost. I wish I were kidding.

Highways and Ramps

Useful long-range navigation is impossible with Waze if the highways are broken. Since limited-access roads--typically Freeways & Major Highways--offer more to think about (and more opportunities to mess them up) than typical surface-road work, this section is very important.

Roads

The term "limited-access road" here refers to a road that is multi-laned in each direction, with a physical barrier between directions, and which can be entered & exited solely by ramps. Such roads almost always should be mapped as separate one-way segments--and other roads almost never should be.

Ramps

As stated elsewhere, off-ramps should be named according to their exit number if they have one, as well as whatever is on the actual exit sign; e.g., "Exit 7: Rte 3 S / Braintree / Cape Cod". On-ramps should be named "to" whatever they lead to; e.g., "to I-93 S / Quincy / Providence RI". Ramps should always be locked to preserve directionality, since they often run especially close to other ramps that flow in the opposite direction. (Not locking ramps means you will end up coming back later to fix a ramp that has become two-way--and has started directing traffic accordingly.) Remember to check connectivity and turn restrictions while you're there.

Overpasses & Underpasses

Recent experience has changed my thinking regarding road levels. Given the current editor limitations, I have found that it is more important to know that road level is an issue for a particular segment (e.g., a mile-long stretch of highway that extends well beyond the screen boundaries), than what its actual value is, or of maintaining a consistent level across multiple segments of the same road.

I use level 0 as a "sentinel value" that signifies that a segment has no overpasses or underpasses. When editing an over/underpass, if either segment is at level 0, set it to a non-zero value that reflects its relative level. If both levels are already non-zero, either they are already correct--in which case no further action is required--or they are incorrect, in which case the area needs to be studied carefully, so as not to "break" other intersections that have already been evaluated and assigned.

In many cases, the conflict can be resolved simply by adjusting one segment's level, or perhaps several segments will need to be adjusted. Proceed with caution. In really complicated situations, it might help to draw a picture, or to start by looking for the top-most or bottom-most segment. Or perhaps take a course in Topology at your local community college.

Occasionally you will run into a situation in which no set of values will work. For example, three segments named A, B and C: A crosses over B, B crosses over C, and C crosses over A. So A > B > C > A... now what? Either pretend that one of the segments crosses over both of the others, or add a junction to one of the segments so that it can have two different levels as needed--and hope nobody deletes that "unnecessary" junction without investigating why it might be there. (In this example it might even make sense to add junctions to all three segments, just to make it clearer to the next AM what you're trying to accomplish.)

Caveat re. Levels

No matter what levels road segments are assigned, if you pin a junction through them, they now form a navigable intersection, and Waze will instruct people to turn off of bridges and onto the cross-streets below. If you are looking at an over/underpass, and there is a junction where the roads cross, get rid of it. First, make sure the levels of the road segments are correct, and that all the other info. of each pair of road segments match. At that point, deleting the junction will most likely work. If not (perhaps because a ramp or another road segment prevents you from deleting it), you can try:

Bridging Roads

Select the two segments that cross over/under the intersection, then click on the "Bridge" link. If all goes well, the selected segments will be separated from the underlying junction, consolidated into a single segment, and their level increased by 1. Failing that, you may have to disconnect both sides of the over/underpassing road from the junction, make sure their levels are correct, and then re-connect them.

制限されたレーンの扱い

At this time, Waze does not have a facility to handle restricted lanes; e.g., high-occupancy/"car pool" lanes, lanes that are open (or change direction) at certain times of day, etc.. This is important because these lanes sometimes have their own ramps that the regular lanes do not have, and they often run alongside the main road, so that GPS has a hard time discriminating between the two. The result is driving instructions that can range from incorrect to deadly.

The most direct solution might appear to be omitting/deleting these lanes from the map. Please do not delete these lanes. As Waze implements more features, it will help (in terms of testing and making the feature available) if these lanes are already mapped.

The best partial solution the community has come up with so far is to leave these segments' directionality as whatever their native would be. If it's a set of lanes which switch directionality at times, set it to 2-way. If it is always a 1-way, set it as such. In order to make it less likely that Waze will route anyone onto these express lanes, HOV lanes, etc., any ramps connecting these segments to regular freeway or street segments should be set as Parking Lot road type and turns onto the parking lot road segments and the freeway or highway segments are Disallowed.

This "solution" will give routing onto these special lanes a very high penalty and reduce the likelihood that Waze will create a route over them. It will not prevent Waze from snapping a driver to the segments, if it determines they are on such a lane, and any recalculation of the route from these segments will then be correct as well. However, as noted above, the fact that these lanes are usually quite close to the normal/open freeway or highway, makes it unlikely Waze will automatically recognize their true location due to GPS inaccuracy and margin of error.

有料道路

通行料を徴収する道路は、道路のプロパティでToll roadにチェックを入れることで区別することができます。 有料道路である部分のみチェックしてください。

  • 料金所、ETCまたは他の料金徴収装置がある道路
  • 料金を払うことなく運転する方法がない道路(結局、出口で支払う等)

一方向だけ有料の橋の場合、方向別に道を分割し、有料道路の部分だけチェックしてください。

時間帯による進入規制

Waze currently has no provision for handling this type of restriction, although it is planned for the future. In a situation where a turn is illegal during certain times of the day (e.g. No Left Turn, 7-10 am, 3-7 pm, Weekdays), it's generally best to err on the side of caution and allow the turn. This way, waze will always give an optimal route and the driver can decide (based on local conditions) whether or not to use it.

交差点でRampsを使うべき場合

Please see the discussion on at-grade connectors.

ロータリーを作るべき場合

In the author's editing and driving experience, once you learn how to create a roundabout, it is always the right time to replace an ad hoc traffic circle (built from regular road segments) with a proper roundabout. The voice cues produced by an ad-hoc circle can be terribly misleading, and the client display almost always looks unprofessionally sloppy. Replacing this with a roundabout is an instant, orders-of-magnitude improvement on both counts.

Note that a roundabout should never be used in place of an end-node on dead-end or cul-de-sac streets.

ロックされた道路

近所の道路をロックすることはおすすめしません。ロックするのは、重要な道路や複雑な交差点に初心者の編集者が手を加えるのを防ぐ目的のみで使われるべきです。

交差点、ターン規制等すべてが100%完成し、正しいと確信するまで決して道路をロックしないでください

あなたより編集レベルの高い誰かによってロックされた道路や交差点に出合った場合、道路を選択し、その場所のpermalinkをコピーし、ロック解除リクエストフォーラムへ投稿してください

ロックすることは、慎重かつ控えめにしてください

交差点作成ガイド

交差点を作成したり編集するとき、Wazeのルート検索エンジンがどのように道路と交差点を扱うか理解することは非常に重要です。 交差点作成ガイドは、数多くの異なるタイプの交差点の見本を見ることができます。

道路の作成

駐車場

駐車場の通路を描くことは、2つの目的を持っています

  • Wazeがドアツードアのルート案内を提供する目的
  • Wazeクライアントの現在地が近くの大通りとなることを回避する目的(誤った交通レポートをなくすため)

ショッピングセンター

大きな駐車場内(例えば、ショッピングセンター)の通路は以下の場合のみ作成してください

  • 駐車場の外の道路からの正面入口まで
  • 店舗に沿って走る道路
  • 駐車場の外の道路に沿って走る駐車場内の道(駐車場の車が大通りにいると勘違いし、誤った速度情報を送ることを防ぐため)
  • 幹線道路から出入りするのに役立つ道路

思い出してください!目指すのは使いやすさとシンプルさです。 様々な状況で迷ったときには車に乗っている自分をイメージしてください、他の場所から店舗に行く、または出口から大通りに戻るために出来るだけ複雑でない最も運転しやすい方法とは何か自分に尋ねてください。想像して最も使われるであろう道を地図に描き、残りの道は省略してください。走行軌跡は地図を作る助けとなります。マップエディタにてGPSレイヤー(ショートカットキーShift-G)をオンにして見ることができます。
ParkingLotRoad ShoppingCenter.png

特にすべての通路と駐車スペースを描かないでください(よくあります!) これは、地図を複雑にし、ルート案内を混乱させ、クライアントとサーバに不要な高負荷を与える原因となります。 使いやすさとシンプルさが一番であるのを思い出してください。 あなたの編集にかける時間と知識は、他の部分の編集にまわすことができます。

小さな駐車場

Parking lots that serve a small number of businesses should be minimal: enough to give the driver correct directions into & out of the lot, and navigate to a particular business. Very small lots with a single entrance/exit could even be represented by a single segment running diagonally across the parking area.

Beware of Parking Lot exits that have a restricted turn (typically no left turn allowed across a median). Due to the way that Waze routing works in regards to penalties, if there is only one way out of a Parking Lot Waze may route you to take that restricted left turn. In these cases it would be better to provide another path out of the lot via an unrestricted turn.

Drive-Through Lots

Because these lots can be narrow and congested, with one-way sections, the simplest way to represent them may be as just a one-way drive-through loop. Caveat: because both ends of a segment cannot connect to the same junction, if the lot has only one entrance/exit, it will be necessary to build the loop using two segments.

Use of the Parking Lot Road Type

The Parking Lot Road type exists to allow the mapping of parking lots, while discouraging the routing server from using them for navigation vs. the road network. Waze has changed the way that Parking Lot roads route as of June 2012. Parking Lot roads now have a transition penalty when transitioning from the Parking Lot road to another road type. This penalty decreases the chance that Waze will route through a Parking Lot as a shortcut but allow better navigation in and out of the Parking Lot. Every segment that is used to map a Parking Lot should be of the Parking Lot segment type. It is no longer advisable to mix road types within the Parking Lot.

Recorded via Client

Once you start editing a road, it changes from red (a new road) to the colour of a road type (by default a white street) and will then appear on the next update of the Live Map which will go out to all Waze users.

So it is less than helpful if you do an incomplete job. At least if the road is red, then someone else knows that it needs work. If it is white, perhaps even with a street name, then it may look correct. But Waze may not view it as navigable.

Follow these simple steps, as best you can, and get it right the first time. Map Editing explains how to carry out these steps.

  1. Align the geometry of the road to the aerial image unless that is not appropriate in your area
  2. Enter the correct name and road type for your road, following the standards for your country
  3. Make sure the road has the correct directionality. Most roads should be Two Way.
  4. Add junctions where the road intersects with other roads. By default tick "Enable all turns". Restrict any turns that are not allowed. If a junction appears, just add a junction over the top. Chances are it does not have all turns enabled. Waze automatically handles turn restrictions for one way roads.

Roundabouts

Even though a proper roundabout (i.e., produces "at the roundabout..." verbal cues) can only be created in Cartouche, when it is first created, the segments are configured as new roads. They will need to be edited as above before they will become part of the live map.

交差の分類

交差部分の種類には、それを編集する手本となる方法があります

Cartouche (old editor) Caveats

Cartouche has been superseded by Waze Map Editor (WME) and should only be used by experienced map editors to access a few features that are not available in WME. As of January 2012, Waze developers have expressed their intention of taking this editor offline, but they have not done so because of these few unavailable features in WME. Many of the problems listed in this section have been solved with WME.

The old information on Cartouche has been moved to Best map editing practice (Cartouche) for archive purposes.

Waze地図と衛星写真のズレ

Wazeの地図とGoogle Mapsの地図がズレる現象は「オフセット」と呼ばれ、修正は Google社により行われます。

地図と航空写真がずれを発見した場合は、以下のページで該当箇所のパーマリンクを報告してください。


Mis-aligned images in the Editor

Screenshot of Mis-aligned images report.png


ref.