Difference between revisions of "道路类型"

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首先通过道路名称初步确定道路类型。注意,道路类型的确认还有很多名称以外规范要求。记住这只是初步查找的道路类型。
 
首先通过道路名称初步确定道路类型。注意,道路类型的确认还有很多名称以外规范要求。记住这只是初步查找的道路类型。
 
*高速公路 ~ 高速公路(Freeway) [[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]
 
*高速公路 ~ 高速公路(Freeway) [[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]
*干线公路 ~ 主要公路(Major highway) [[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]
+
*国道干线 ~ 主干公路(Major highway) [[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]
 
*省级公路 ~ 次级公路(Minor Highway) [[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]
 
*省级公路 ~ 次级公路(Minor Highway) [[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]
 
*县级公路 ~ 主要街道(Primary street)  [[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]
 
*县级公路 ~ 主要街道(Primary street)  [[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]
Line 32: Line 32:
  
 
==道路类型分类:==
 
==道路类型分类:==
===高速公路 [[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]===
+
===高速公路(Freeway)[[Image:RoadBlue.png|180px]]===
 
[[Image:RoadPicN.jpg|right|400px]]
 
[[Image:RoadPicN.jpg|right|400px]]
  
Line 58: Line 58:
 
-----
 
-----
  
===公路[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |150px]][[Image:RoadYell.png |150px]]===
+
===公路(Highway)[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |150px]][[Image:RoadYell.png |150px]]===
 
公路通常被编号或命名用来连接两个城市。如果城市在不同的省份,公路可能会被命名为国道。如果在同一个省份道路可能会被命名为省道。如果在一个县可能会被命名为县道。位智有两个主要的公路标签,主要公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)。它们的使用分类可能取决于区域人口、交通密度。
 
公路通常被编号或命名用来连接两个城市。如果城市在不同的省份,公路可能会被命名为国道。如果在同一个省份道路可能会被命名为省道。如果在一个县可能会被命名为县道。位智有两个主要的公路标签,主要公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)。它们的使用分类可能取决于区域人口、交通密度。
  
主要公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)
+
主干公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)
  
设计和用途是一个主要的区分标准。主要公路(Major highway)为干线公路设置有中央隔离带,以快速通行为主。次级公路(Minor Highway)主要起集散作用,重点在于互联互通。
+
设计和用途是一个主要的区分标准。主干公路(Major highway)为干线公路设置有中央隔离带,以快速通行为主。次级公路(Minor Highway)主要起集散作用,重点在于互联互通。
  
  
*干线公路等级通常有一级公路和二级公路之分。
+
*公路等级通常有一级公路和二级公路之分。
 
*在不同的地区省道适用会相对宽松,比如在一个县城每一条路都可能标示为省道。在这些情况下许多国家的省道不是一个高等级的道路类型。
 
*在不同的地区省道适用会相对宽松,比如在一个县城每一条路都可能标示为省道。在这些情况下许多国家的省道不是一个高等级的道路类型。
 
*县级道路差异很大,有些可能值得标示为公路。
 
*县级道路差异很大,有些可能值得标示为公路。
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====主要公路[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]====
+
====主干公路(Major highway)[[Image:Majorhighwayseg.png |200px]]====
 
[[Image:Maj-hwy.jpg|right|500px]]
 
[[Image:Maj-hwy.jpg|right|500px]]
 
按照特定标准建立的直达快速公路  
 
按照特定标准建立的直达快速公路  
Line 85: Line 85:
 
*通常访问当地商铺需要下道,行驶到临街道路或其他街道。
 
*通常访问当地商铺需要下道,行驶到临街道路或其他街道。
  
不做为主要公路的有:数量庞大的普通街道、停车场道路、住宅道路、低速道路、无中央隔离带道路、可变车道(潮汐车道)等。
+
不做为主干公路的有:数量庞大的普通街道、停车场道路、住宅道路、低速道路、无中央隔离带道路、可变车道(潮汐车道)等。
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
<br style="clear: both" />
  
====Minor Highway[[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]====
+
====次级公路(Minor Highway)[[Image:RoadYell.png |200px]]====
 
[[Image:Screen134.png|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:Screen134.png|right|300px]]
While still a labeled route that can be followed to get from one city/town/neighborhood to another, routing of thru traffic is not always a priority in the street design. 
 
Some minor highways are built with a higher priority on through traffic, while other minor highways are nothing more than a label dropped onto existing residential streets. 
 
  
Minor Highways vary widely from large multi-lane roads with stoplights and higher speed limits, to small residential streets with stops signs. 
+
道路类型的区分也不全是优先考虑设计标准,是否用来连接不同的城市/城镇/社区也是重要考虑因素之一。
  
Some minor highways may zigzag thru an area with many turns on local streets. 
+
一些次级公路建造标准有着很高的通行能力,而其他的次级公路无非是将现有的住宅街道做简单标注。
  
A Minor Highway thru the main street of a small town often retains focus on local access with pedestrian traffic and on street parking.
+
次级公路通行标准相差很大,高标准的拥有信号灯和更高的限速标准,低标准的或是住宅街道有停止线等。
  
As a good note, remember that in major construction zones for Highways under construction, often Waze will try to route you through the construction, as if its the only route, since it prefers highways.
+
一些次级公路可能,曲折穿越一个区域,并且连接许多当地道路。
<br style="clear: both" />
+
  
 +
有些穿越小镇的次级公路经常被当做当地主要街道,伴随着本地行人通行和街道停车等现象。
  
====Ramps[[Image:Ramp.png |200px]]====
+
有一个好的建议,记住在重大建设区内,公路稍后也会修建。在你经常通过的地区,位智经常尝试修建道路,
 +
 
 +
<br style="clear: both" />
 +
 
 +
====匝道、辅路、交流道(Ramps)[[Image:Ramp.png |200px]]====
 
[[Image:RoadPicN2.jpg|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:RoadPicN2.jpg|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:HBlue.png|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:HBlue.png|right|300px]]
*All entrances to or exits from freeways. 
 
*A proper freeway style ramp onto or off of a Highway. 
 
*Not for at grade "street" connectors.
 
*Not for turn lanes.
 
*Roads connecting a highway with a rest/service/parking area should be treated as ramps as well and named accordingly (e.g. "Exit to Service Area").
 
  
Ramp names do not appear on the client application map, but do appear in the text for routing directions.<br style="clear: both" />
+
*所有的高速公路入口或出口。
 +
*一个恰当匝道会驶入或驶出主干公路或次级公路。
 +
*不作为作平交路口连接道路。
 +
*不作为是挑头道路。
 +
*从公路连接检查站/服务区/停车场的坡道应视为匝道并命名。(例如:“服务区出口”)。
  
Additional details on when to use the Ramp type vs. any other road type for intersections is covered in the [[At-Grade Connectors]] article.
+
匝道的名字不会出现在客户端地图上,但会在导航中出现。<br style="clear: both" />
  
Information on how to lay out ramps and set the proper angles from the main road can be found in the [[Junction Style Guide]].
+
匝道与其他道路相连时需要关注更多额外的细节,请在具体操作时参考[[平交道口]]
  
For other countries see [[How_to_label_and_name_roads|this article]].
+
如何正确设置匝道的角度使导航发挥作用可以学习[[交叉路口样式指南]]。
 +
 
 +
英语够好直接看这个[[How_to_label_and_name_roads|this article]].
  
 
-----
 
-----
  
===Streets[[Image:Primary street.png|150px]][[Image:Street.png|150px]][[Image:Service road.png|150px]]===
+
===街道(Streets)[[Image:Primary street.png|150px]][[Image:Street.png|150px]][[Image:Service road.png|150px]]===
Usually for local travel within a town. 
+
通常只在一个城镇范围内。
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
<br style="clear: both" />
  
  
====Primary Street[[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]====
+
====主要街道[[Image:Primary street.png|200px]]====
 
[[Image:RoadPicN3.jpg|right|300px]]  
 
[[Image:RoadPicN3.jpg|right|300px]]  
Major roads or boulevards used to get across a neighborhood or city.
+
*主干路或林荫大道用于贯穿一个社区或城市。
*Usually given higher priority for right of way with traffic controls. 
+
*通常在通行方面有更高的优先级。
*Primary streets may have less residential driveways. 
+
*主要街道有稀少的住宅车道。
*A town’s “Main Street,” if it is not a highway, is typically a primary street. 
+
*一个城镇的“重要的道路”,如果它不是公路,通常是一个主要街道。
*In some regions “County Roads” are typically primary streets. 
+
*在一些地区“县级公路”通常是主要街道。
A primary designation is very relative to population and traffic densities.  In the smallest rural town, a primary street may barely be wide enough for two cars heading opposite directions to pass each other.  In dense urban areas primary streets may need to be a divided road with multiple lanes of traffic in each direction having traffic controls at every intersection.
+
 
 +
主要街道根据人口交通流量是一个相对的标准。在农村小乡镇双向两车道既可以认定为主要街道。在人口密集的大城市可能会有中央隔离带,单个方向多车道,并在每个路口都有转向交通灯来控制车流。
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
<br style="clear: both" />
  
 +
====街道(Street)[[Image:Street.png|200px]]====
 +
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px]]
 +
*任何可以用来导航的街道. 
 +
*平交路口、挑头道路需要相距足够的距离,GPS才能恰当的确定定位。
 +
<br style="clear: both" />
  
====Service Road[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]====
+
====便道(Service Road)[[Image:Service road.png|200px]]====
 
[[Image:RoadPicN5b.jpg|right|300px]]
 
[[Image:RoadPicN5b.jpg|right|300px]]
Also often known as a frontage road.  
+
常常被看做一个临街辅道。  
*A smaller street found running alongside a limited access highway or other primary street. 
+
*一条较小的街道,与有限的公路或主要街道连接。
*Service roads allow local traffic to enter and exit driveways, parking lots, and intersecting streets without congesting thoroughfare traffic.
+
*便道帮助车辆驶入和驶离街道、停车场、叉路口等也没有街路拥挤。
*(NOTE: Service Roads should NOT be confused with what is often called a "service alley".  Service Roads will not prevent routing.)
+
* March, 2013 - it was agreed at the second U.S. Waze Conference that the "Service Road" classification would be phased out and existing Service Roads would be automatically converted to Street type.
+
<br style="clear: both" />
+
  
====Street[[Image:Street.png|200px]]====
+
 
[[Image:RoadPicN4.jpg|right|400px]]
+
*(说明: 便道不应与“疏散通道”混淆。便道是可以被导航的。)
*Any road that traffic will be routed onto. 
+
* 2013年3月第二次美国位智会议通过决议,“便道”分类将逐步淘汰现有的便道将会自动转换成普通街道。
*At grade connectors & turn lanes when separated by enough distance from the streets that one is needed for proper GPS tracking.
+
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 +
  
 
-----
 
-----
===Other===
+
===其他(Other)===
 
<br style="clear: both" />
 
<br style="clear: both" />
  

Revision as of 04:06, 8 July 2013

注意:规则总会有例外情况。如果有疑问,在制造特例之前请咨询一个位智国王或地区管理员(在名字旁边6级)。

概述

在位智中道路类型由通行状态及技术指标决定,并不是道路名称决定的。

道路类型不影响命名。及时一条土路,是国道仍将命名为“国道+名称”。详见道路命名

道路类型的分类受城市规模、交通密度和区域的影响。例如,在城市主要街道单向有三个或更多的车道。而在一个城镇的土路,唯一的单车道道路也可以是一个主要街道。

在编辑地图,你可能会注意到,有些道路不正确标签提示。这意味着,道路类型可能是错的(公路被标记为街道),或者一条道路有几种类型(公路被标记为高速公路,公路,主要街道等不同的几段)。

合理标注体现在两个重要方面:

  1. 当浏览地图时,重要类型的道路会出现在远景缩放级别。没有恰当的分类,“放大”显示道路可能会变得非常混乱。
  2. 当导航规划路线时,主要道路将优先于规模较小的道路。

进行编辑之前

确保你完全熟悉以下文章:

开始

首先通过道路名称初步确定道路类型。注意,道路类型的确认还有很多名称以外规范要求。记住这只是初步查找的道路类型。

  • 高速公路 ~ 高速公路(Freeway) RoadBlue.png
  • 国道干线 ~ 主干公路(Major highway) Majorhighwayseg.png
  • 省级公路 ~ 次级公路(Minor Highway) RoadYell.png
  • 县级公路 ~ 主要街道(Primary street) Primary street.png
  • 城市道路 ~ 街道(Street) Street.png
  • 出入口路 ~ 匝道(Ramp) Ramp.png
  • 未命名的 ~ 便道(Service road) Service road.png

道路类型分类:

高速公路(Freeway)RoadBlue.png

RoadPicN.jpg

高速公路有严格的分类规则。

  • 所有的国家高速公路
  • 拥有中央隔离带
  • 没有交叉路口。
  • 没有交通灯(匝道除外)。
  • 没有停止标志(停车线)。
  • 禁止停车。
  • 禁止停留(除了收费亭、平旋桥和交通堵塞)。
  • 最高限速。
  • 一些有最低速度限制。
  • 限制通行车辆
    • 各地规则不同比较常见的有
      • 禁止行人
      • 禁止自行车
      • 禁止轻便摩托车
    • 入口匝道通常设计一个加速区,这样可以在并流之前加速到高速公路上汽车的速度。
    • 出口匝道通常设计一个减速带,可以降低速度而不阻碍交通,然后有足够的距离来减缓速度。

关于如何最佳布局高速公路及匝道,请查看高速公路交叉路口样式指南。对于特定的指南在其他国家请参考这个页面获取更多信息



公路(Highway)Majorhighwayseg.pngRoadYell.png

公路通常被编号或命名用来连接两个城市。如果城市在不同的省份,公路可能会被命名为国道。如果在同一个省份道路可能会被命名为省道。如果在一个县可能会被命名为县道。位智有两个主要的公路标签,主要公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)。它们的使用分类可能取决于区域人口、交通密度。

主干公路(Major highway)和次级公路(Minor Highway)

设计和用途是一个主要的区分标准。主干公路(Major highway)为干线公路设置有中央隔离带,以快速通行为主。次级公路(Minor Highway)主要起集散作用,重点在于互联互通。


  • 公路等级通常有一级公路和二级公路之分。
  • 在不同的地区省道适用会相对宽松,比如在一个县城每一条路都可能标示为省道。在这些情况下许多国家的省道不是一个高等级的道路类型。
  • 县级道路差异很大,有些可能值得标示为公路。



主干公路(Major highway)Majorhighwayseg.png

Maj-hwy.jpg

按照特定标准建立的直达快速公路

  • 更高的速度。 限速应该接近或等于同一区域的高速公路。(差距通常在每小时5-10公里以内)
  • 每个方向多个车道。
  • 设有中央隔离带。
  • 与高速公路类似为了避免拥堵,通过指定车道或匝道联通其他道路。
  • 少量有限与几个道路有交叉路口。交叉路口通常与重要街道或其他道路。
  • 可以有信号灯或立交桥。
  • 没有停车线(美国)。
  • 有限的人行横道。
  • 通常访问当地商铺需要下道,行驶到临街道路或其他街道。

不做为主干公路的有:数量庞大的普通街道、停车场道路、住宅道路、低速道路、无中央隔离带道路、可变车道(潮汐车道)等。

次级公路(Minor Highway)RoadYell.png

Screen134.png

道路类型的区分也不全是优先考虑设计标准,是否用来连接不同的城市/城镇/社区也是重要考虑因素之一。

一些次级公路建造标准有着很高的通行能力,而其他的次级公路无非是将现有的住宅街道做简单标注。

次级公路通行标准相差很大,高标准的拥有信号灯和更高的限速标准,低标准的或是住宅街道有停止线等。

一些次级公路可能,曲折穿越一个区域,并且连接许多当地道路。

有些穿越小镇的次级公路经常被当做当地主要街道,伴随着本地行人通行和街道停车等现象。

有一个好的建议,记住在重大建设区内,公路稍后也会修建。在你经常通过的地区,位智经常尝试修建道路,


匝道、辅路、交流道(Ramps)Ramp.png

RoadPicN2.jpg
HBlue.png
  • 所有的高速公路入口或出口。
  • 一个恰当匝道会驶入或驶出主干公路或次级公路。
  • 不作为作平交路口连接道路。
  • 不作为是挑头道路。
  • 从公路连接检查站/服务区/停车场的坡道应视为匝道并命名。(例如:“服务区出口”)。

匝道的名字不会出现在客户端地图上,但会在导航中出现。

匝道与其他道路相连时需要关注更多额外的细节,请在具体操作时参考平交道口

如何正确设置匝道的角度使导航发挥作用可以学习交叉路口样式指南

英语够好直接看这个this article.


街道(Streets)Primary street.pngStreet.pngService road.png

通常只在一个城镇范围内。


主要街道Primary street.png

RoadPicN3.jpg
  • 主干路或林荫大道用于贯穿一个社区或城市。
  • 通常在通行方面有更高的优先级。
  • 主要街道有稀少的住宅车道。
  • 一个城镇的“重要的道路”,如果它不是公路,通常是一个主要街道。
  • 在一些地区“县级公路”通常是主要街道。

主要街道根据人口交通流量是一个相对的标准。在农村小乡镇双向两车道既可以认定为主要街道。在人口密集的大城市可能会有中央隔离带,单个方向多车道,并在每个路口都有转向交通灯来控制车流。

街道(Street)Street.png

RoadPicN4.jpg
  • 任何可以用来导航的街道.
  • 平交路口、挑头道路需要相距足够的距离,GPS才能恰当的确定定位。


便道(Service Road)Service road.png

RoadPicN5b.jpg

常常被看做一个临街辅道。

  • 一条较小的街道,与有限的公路或主要街道连接。
  • 便道帮助车辆驶入和驶离街道、停车场、叉路口等也没有街路拥挤。


  • (说明: 便道不应与“疏散通道”混淆。便道是可以被导航的。)
  • 2013年3月第二次美国位智会议通过决议,“便道”分类将逐步淘汰现有的便道将会自动转换成普通街道。




其他(Other)



DirtService road.png

RoadPicN6.jpg

A road that is not paved.

Marking a road as "Dirt Road" will have the following consequences:
- Road name will not display in client.
- Routing will be restricted to avoid this road if user has disabled the use of dirt roads in client settings.

Parking Lot RoadService road.png

RoadPicN7.jpg

Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as alleys that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.

  • Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map. See this additional page for more details on how to map parking lots.
  • Parking Lot roads have a transition penalty when exiting the Parking Lot road segment. This should prevent Waze from routing you through a Parking Lot as a shortcut.
  • Use Parking Lot road type for all necessary segments in the Parking Lot.
  • The proper use of parking lot roads can also help to avoid automated traffic jam reports as well as Map Problems related to Wazers driving in unmapped parking lots. Draw in the drivable portions of the parking lot that are near streets and other roadways. This will prevent the Waze routing server from assuming you must be on the main road when in fact you are stopped in the parking lot stopped.

Additional information on this topic can be reviewed in the forums.

Private RoadService road.png

Private roads are useful for the following situations:

  • Gated communities with controlled access
  • Schools and Universities
  • Military Bases
  • Roads within apartment complexes and trailer parks
  • Businesses with controlled access (gates / guard)

Private roads function in a similar way to Parking Lot roads using a transition penalty when leaving the Private Road. This transition penalty to keep Waze from incorrectly routing Wazers through a private area as a shortcut.

When mapping Private roads, all of the road segments within the Private area should be of the Private Road type. Private roads do not suppress automated traffic jams in the Waze application.


Non-drivable

Your car should not be here!

  • These may be useful for points of reference when navigating such as seeing on a map where a turn is in relation to a railroad crossing.
  • When Waze users travel on a non-vehicle route such as a bicyclist or mass-transit rider, marking these routes can be useful to explain the GPS traces that result.
  • If a base map scan has non-drivable routes on it, it is important to mark these to prevent traffic routing onto them.
  • Non-drivable routes should not have any type of junction with a drivable road. When crossing a drivable road, the non-drivable road should be bridged across without a junction between them and set at a different level.



Walking TrailsService road.png

RoadPicN9.jpg

Also bike trails


Pedestrian BoardwalksService road.png

RoadPicN10.jpg



StairwayService road.png

RoadPicN11.jpg



RailroadService road.png

Train and Light Rail tracks currently do not appear in Waze client, but may in a future release. For that reason some editors may map at least the portion of the railroad that cross driven roads. However, DO NOT create a junction between the driven road and the railroad. The Waze routing engine will properly calculate the average time through a segment regardless if the railroad creates a junction on that segment or not. By not creating a junction, there is less chance for turn restrictions to be set incorrectly and potentially cause automated errors in the system.

Currently all Railroad segments should be set to level -5. This also helps ensure the routing engine does not try to connect or route drivers from roads onto railroads by mistake. It also prevent false system reporting that think the roads should be connected.


Waze - Support

Railroads should be labeled as such in the editor. for the time being they won't make it to the client indeed, but in the future we might want to use them for display purposes.

The "railroad" road type in the editor is under "non drivable" so it should not cause any issue to the routing.


For specific recommendations in other countries outside the United States, please see the entry for the country in question here.

Runway/TaxiwayService road.png

For aircraft at airports



Types of segments (Roundabouts) Round.png


RoadPicN8.jpg

Roundabouts have few principals:

The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

Round2.png

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.

For more information on when to create a Roundabout or a loop instead, please review the Junction Style Guide.
For information on what type of road to set a Roundabout to, please review Creating and Editing a Roundabout

Special case roads not covered

There are a number of other types of roadways and lane types which are not directly covered with the current options above. In some cases there are plans to add some of these special cases, but in the mean time the following guidelines are the best that can be done with the current settings.

Bus or cab only lanes

When a road or lane is designated for bus or cab use only, mark that road segment(s) as a Private Road to prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It is also advisable to set the turn restrictions to prevent turns into that segment(s), but permit turns exiting the segment.

If a road is one-way, but allows bus or cab traffic to flow the other direction, leave the road as one-way with the normal flow of traffic. There is no need to create a second road traveling the opposite direction for the bus and cab-only traffic.

Legend

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See Also

Road Naming (USA)
Junction Style Guide
How to label and name roads (United Kingdom)