道路类型

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注意:规则总会有例外情况。如果有疑问,在制造特例之前请咨询一个位智国王或地区管理员(在名字旁边6级)。

概述

在位智中道路类型由通行状态及技术指标决定,并不是道路名称决定的。

道路类型不影响命名。及时一条土路,是国道仍将命名为“国道+名称”。详见道路命名

道路类型的分类受城市规模、交通密度和区域的影响。例如,在城市主要街道单向有三个或更多的车道。而在一个城镇的土路,唯一的单车道道路也可以是一个主要街道。

在编辑地图,你可能会注意到,有些道路不正确标签提示。这意味着,道路类型可能是错的(公路被标记为街道),或者一条道路有几种类型(公路被标记为高速公路,公路,主要街道等不同的几段)。

合理标注体现在两个重要方面:

  1. 当浏览地图时,重要类型的道路会出现在远景缩放级别。没有恰当的分类,“放大”显示道路可能会变得非常混乱。
  2. 当导航规划路线时,主要道路将优先于规模较小的道路。

进行编辑之前

确保你完全熟悉以下文章:

开始

首先通过道路名称初步确定道路类型。注意,道路类型的确认还有很多名称以外规范要求。记住这只是初步查找的道路类型。

  • 高速公路 ~ 高速公路(Freeway) RoadBlue.png
  • 干线公路 ~ 主要公路(Major highway) Majorhighwayseg.png
  • 省级公路 ~ 次级公路(Minor Highway) RoadYell.png
  • 县级公路 ~ 主要街道(Primary street) Primary street.png
  • 城市道路 ~ 街道(Street) Street.png
  • 出入口路 ~ 匝道(Ramp) Ramp.png
  • 未命名的 ~ 便道(Service road) Service road.png

Road Type Classifications:

Freeway RoadBlue.png

RoadPicN.jpg

Although it is currently listed under Highways, a freeway does not have to be a highway.

Freeways have strict classification rules.

  • Almost all US Interstates are Freeways (exceptions Wikipedia Link)
  • Multi-Lane, divided road (with rare exceptions Wikipedia link)
  • No cross traffic.
  • No stop lights (except for ramp meters).
  • No stop signs.
  • No parking.
  • No stopping (except for toll booths, freeway access metering, movable briges Wikipedia link, and traffic congestion.)
  • Highest speed limits. (relative to region)
  • Some have minimum speed limits.
  • Limited access
    • Access restrictions vary by state but some typical restrictions are
      • No pedestrians
      • No bicycles
      • No mopeds
    • Entrance ramps are typically designed with an acceleration zone so that cars can accelerate up to freeway speeds before merging into freeway traffic.
    • Exit ramps are typically designed with a deceleration zone so that traffic can exit the freeway at freeway speeds without obstructing traffic, then have sufficient distance to slow down before any turns.

For information on how to best layout freeways and their junctions, please review the section on freeways in the Junction Style Guide. For specific guidelines in other countries refer to this page for more information.




HighwaysMajorhighwayseg.pngRoadYell.png

Highways are typically numbered or named roads that can be followed to get from one city to another. If the cities are in different states, it will likely be named as a US highway. If they are in the same state, it will likely be named as a State Highway. If they are in the same county, they may be named as a County Highway. There are two main Highway labels in Waze, Major and Minor. Their use may depend on regional population or traffic densities.

One differentiation between Major and Minor is the design and use of the road. A Major Highway is purpose built for the expedience of thru traffic. A Minor Highway could have a diverse range of priority placed on the flow of thru traffic.

  • US Highways should typically have a Major Highway or Minor Highway road type.
  • State Highways differ by region. In some states all State Highways deserve a Highway road type. In others the “State Highway” term is used very loosely, or every road in a town may have a state highway name. In those cases many state highways will not be a highway road type.
  • County Highways vary greatly, some may deserve a highway designation.



Major HighwayMajorhighwayseg.png

Maj-hwy.jpg

Purposely built as a major throughway.

  • Higher speeds. Speed limits should be near or equal to Interstate or Freeway speed limits in the same area. (typically within 5-10mph)
  • Multiple lanes in each direction.
  • Separated directions of travel.
  • Turning traffic is typically limited to specified turn lanes or freeway style ramps to minimize obstructions to thru traffic.
  • Partially limited access with few minor streets intersecting with this road. Intersections are most often with primary roads or other highways.
  • Can have stoplights or freeway style interchanges.
  • No stop signs
  • Pedestrian crossings may be limited.
  • Local business access is often restricted to frontage roads or other streets.

Typically roads with numerous side streets, parking lot accesses, residential driveways, low speed limits, undivided, or shared center turn lanes (suicide lanes) are not Major Highways.

Minor HighwayRoadYell.png

Screen134.png

While still a labeled route that can be followed to get from one city/town/neighborhood to another, routing of thru traffic is not always a priority in the street design. Some minor highways are built with a higher priority on through traffic, while other minor highways are nothing more than a label dropped onto existing residential streets.

Minor Highways vary widely from large multi-lane roads with stoplights and higher speed limits, to small residential streets with stops signs.

Some minor highways may zigzag thru an area with many turns on local streets.

A Minor Highway thru the main street of a small town often retains focus on local access with pedestrian traffic and on street parking.

As a good note, remember that in major construction zones for Highways under construction, often Waze will try to route you through the construction, as if its the only route, since it prefers highways.


RampsRamp.png

RoadPicN2.jpg
HBlue.png
  • All entrances to or exits from freeways.
  • A proper freeway style ramp onto or off of a Highway.
  • Not for at grade "street" connectors.
  • Not for turn lanes.
  • Roads connecting a highway with a rest/service/parking area should be treated as ramps as well and named accordingly (e.g. "Exit to Service Area").

Ramp names do not appear on the client application map, but do appear in the text for routing directions.

Additional details on when to use the Ramp type vs. any other road type for intersections is covered in the At-Grade Connectors article.

Information on how to lay out ramps and set the proper angles from the main road can be found in the Junction Style Guide.

For other countries see this article.


StreetsPrimary street.pngStreet.pngService road.png

Usually for local travel within a town.


Primary StreetPrimary street.png

RoadPicN3.jpg

Major roads or boulevards used to get across a neighborhood or city.

  • Usually given higher priority for right of way with traffic controls.
  • Primary streets may have less residential driveways.
  • A town’s “Main Street,” if it is not a highway, is typically a primary street.
  • In some regions “County Roads” are typically primary streets.

A primary designation is very relative to population and traffic densities. In the smallest rural town, a primary street may barely be wide enough for two cars heading opposite directions to pass each other. In dense urban areas primary streets may need to be a divided road with multiple lanes of traffic in each direction having traffic controls at every intersection.


Service RoadService road.png

RoadPicN5b.jpg

Also often known as a frontage road.

  • A smaller street found running alongside a limited access highway or other primary street.
  • Service roads allow local traffic to enter and exit driveways, parking lots, and intersecting streets without congesting thoroughfare traffic.
  • (NOTE: Service Roads should NOT be confused with what is often called a "service alley". Service Roads will not prevent routing.)
  • March, 2013 - it was agreed at the second U.S. Waze Conference that the "Service Road" classification would be phased out and existing Service Roads would be automatically converted to Street type.


StreetStreet.png

RoadPicN4.jpg
  • Any road that traffic will be routed onto.
  • At grade connectors & turn lanes when separated by enough distance from the streets that one is needed for proper GPS tracking.



Other



DirtService road.png

RoadPicN6.jpg

A road that is not paved.

Marking a road as "Dirt Road" will have the following consequences:
- Road name will not display in client.
- Routing will be restricted to avoid this road if user has disabled the use of dirt roads in client settings.

Parking Lot RoadService road.png

RoadPicN7.jpg

Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as alleys that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.

  • Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map. See this additional page for more details on how to map parking lots.
  • Parking Lot roads have a transition penalty when exiting the Parking Lot road segment. This should prevent Waze from routing you through a Parking Lot as a shortcut.
  • Use Parking Lot road type for all necessary segments in the Parking Lot.
  • The proper use of parking lot roads can also help to avoid automated traffic jam reports as well as Map Problems related to Wazers driving in unmapped parking lots. Draw in the drivable portions of the parking lot that are near streets and other roadways. This will prevent the Waze routing server from assuming you must be on the main road when in fact you are stopped in the parking lot stopped.

Additional information on this topic can be reviewed in the forums.

Private RoadService road.png

Private roads are useful for the following situations:

  • Gated communities with controlled access
  • Schools and Universities
  • Military Bases
  • Roads within apartment complexes and trailer parks
  • Businesses with controlled access (gates / guard)

Private roads function in a similar way to Parking Lot roads using a transition penalty when leaving the Private Road. This transition penalty to keep Waze from incorrectly routing Wazers through a private area as a shortcut.

When mapping Private roads, all of the road segments within the Private area should be of the Private Road type. Private roads do not suppress automated traffic jams in the Waze application.


Non-drivable

Your car should not be here!

  • These may be useful for points of reference when navigating such as seeing on a map where a turn is in relation to a railroad crossing.
  • When Waze users travel on a non-vehicle route such as a bicyclist or mass-transit rider, marking these routes can be useful to explain the GPS traces that result.
  • If a base map scan has non-drivable routes on it, it is important to mark these to prevent traffic routing onto them.
  • Non-drivable routes should not have any type of junction with a drivable road. When crossing a drivable road, the non-drivable road should be bridged across without a junction between them and set at a different level.



Walking TrailsService road.png

RoadPicN9.jpg

Also bike trails


Pedestrian BoardwalksService road.png

RoadPicN10.jpg



StairwayService road.png

RoadPicN11.jpg



RailroadService road.png

Train and Light Rail tracks currently do not appear in Waze client, but may in a future release. For that reason some editors may map at least the portion of the railroad that cross driven roads. However, DO NOT create a junction between the driven road and the railroad. The Waze routing engine will properly calculate the average time through a segment regardless if the railroad creates a junction on that segment or not. By not creating a junction, there is less chance for turn restrictions to be set incorrectly and potentially cause automated errors in the system.

Currently all Railroad segments should be set to level -5. This also helps ensure the routing engine does not try to connect or route drivers from roads onto railroads by mistake. It also prevent false system reporting that think the roads should be connected.


Waze - Support

Railroads should be labeled as such in the editor. for the time being they won't make it to the client indeed, but in the future we might want to use them for display purposes.

The "railroad" road type in the editor is under "non drivable" so it should not cause any issue to the routing.


For specific recommendations in other countries outside the United States, please see the entry for the country in question here.

Runway/TaxiwayService road.png

For aircraft at airports



Types of segments (Roundabouts) Round.png


RoadPicN8.jpg

Roundabouts have few principals:

The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

Round2.png

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.

For more information on when to create a Roundabout or a loop instead, please review the Junction Style Guide.
For information on what type of road to set a Roundabout to, please review Creating and Editing a Roundabout

Special case roads not covered

There are a number of other types of roadways and lane types which are not directly covered with the current options above. In some cases there are plans to add some of these special cases, but in the mean time the following guidelines are the best that can be done with the current settings.

Bus or cab only lanes

When a road or lane is designated for bus or cab use only, mark that road segment(s) as a Private Road to prevent the Waze router from using that segment(s) for general traffic, since the majority of the users will not be able to use that lane. It is also advisable to set the turn restrictions to prevent turns into that segment(s), but permit turns exiting the segment.

If a road is one-way, but allows bus or cab traffic to flow the other direction, leave the road as one-way with the normal flow of traffic. There is no need to create a second road traveling the opposite direction for the bus and cab-only traffic.

Legend

Tbl.png

See Also

Road Naming (USA)
Junction Style Guide
How to label and name roads (United Kingdom)