Difference between revisions of "Road types/Australia"

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Freeways are major roads with more than one lane of traffic in each direction designed for higher speed operation. They have barriers or wide median strips separating traffic travelling in opposite directions, and grade-separated intersections without roundabouts or traffic lights in the main route. Some toll roads are called motorways or tollways to avoid perceived difficulties with charging people to use a freeway. Most Australian capital cities have one or more freeways across, past, or leading to them.
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Freeways are major roads with more than one lane of traffic in each direction designed for higher speed operation. They have barriers or wide median strips separating traffic travelling in opposite directions, and grade-separated intersections without roundabouts or traffic lights in the main route. Some [[toll roads]] are called motorways or tollways to avoid perceived difficulties with charging people to use a freeway. Most Australian capital cities have one or more freeways across, past, or leading to them.
  
 
The Southern Expressway in southern Adelaide is a single carriageway of a freeway, and operates in one direction at a time, carrying traffic in the direction most in demand. It is closed to change direction twelve times per week (not Friday or Sunday nights). This is the only road in Australia which operates like this. When limited-access highways began to be built in Sydney in the 1950s, beginning with the Cahill Expressway, they were provisionally named expressways, but in the 1960s Australian transport ministers agreed that they be called freeways. The Cahill Expressway has kept its original name, possibly because some of it is substandard.
 
The Southern Expressway in southern Adelaide is a single carriageway of a freeway, and operates in one direction at a time, carrying traffic in the direction most in demand. It is closed to change direction twelve times per week (not Friday or Sunday nights). This is the only road in Australia which operates like this. When limited-access highways began to be built in Sydney in the 1950s, beginning with the Cahill Expressway, they were provisionally named expressways, but in the 1960s Australian transport ministers agreed that they be called freeways. The Cahill Expressway has kept its original name, possibly because some of it is substandard.

Revision as of 03:11, 10 May 2013

This page is focused on roads in Australia. For information on roads in North America go to Road Types (USA).

Overview

Road type designations in Waze should be determined by the physical layout and use of the road, not by the name of a road.

Road types do not affect naming. Some highways in remote areas of Australia are not sealed. A dirt road that is an Australian Highway would still be named as a highway. See How to label and name roads (Australia)

Some road type classifications are influenced by city size, traffic density, and regional conventions. For example, in a very large city a primary street may have three or more lanes in each direction on a divided road. While in a town of dirt roads, the only paved single lane street could be a primary street.

While editing the maps, you may notice that some of the roads are not labeled properly. This means, the road type might be wrong (a highway is marked as a street) or that one road has a few road types (a highway is marked as Freeway, highway and primary at different segments).

The importance of proper labeling is in two aspects:

  1. When viewing the map, the 'bigger' roads should appear at the far zoom levels. Without proper labels, the 'zoomed out' display can be very confusing.
  2. When planning a route, major roads will get priority over smaller roads.
  3. Due to routing heuristics used in Waze, and the ability of users to choose to " Avoid major highways", consider the affect on the user and how the road is seen in the client.

Starting Point

Naming, numbering and shield marking conventions can be useful as starting point when determining a road type. However, be aware that each state has its own classification system for Identifying and numbering routes. Remember that this is only guide on where to start when determining a road type.

Road Type Classifications:

Freeway RoadBlue.png

RoadPicN.jpg

Freeways are major roads with more than one lane of traffic in each direction designed for higher speed operation. They have barriers or wide median strips separating traffic travelling in opposite directions, and grade-separated intersections without roundabouts or traffic lights in the main route. Some toll roads are called motorways or tollways to avoid perceived difficulties with charging people to use a freeway. Most Australian capital cities have one or more freeways across, past, or leading to them.

The Southern Expressway in southern Adelaide is a single carriageway of a freeway, and operates in one direction at a time, carrying traffic in the direction most in demand. It is closed to change direction twelve times per week (not Friday or Sunday nights). This is the only road in Australia which operates like this. When limited-access highways began to be built in Sydney in the 1950s, beginning with the Cahill Expressway, they were provisionally named expressways, but in the 1960s Australian transport ministers agreed that they be called freeways. The Cahill Expressway has kept its original name, possibly because some of it is substandard.

Freeways have strict classification rules.

  • Multi-Lane, divided road (with rare exceptions Wikipedia link)
  • No cross traffic.
  • No stop lights (except for ramp meters).
  • No stop signs.
  • No parking.
  • No stopping (except for toll booths, freeway access metering, movable briges Wikipedia link, and traffic congestion.)
  • Highest speed limits. (relative to region)
  • Some have minimum speed limits.
  • Limited access
    • Access restrictions vary by state but some typical restrictions are
      • No pedestrians
      • No bicycles
      • No mopeds
    • Entrance ramps are typically designed with an acceleration zone so that cars can accelerate up to freeway speeds before merging into freeway traffic.
    • Exit ramps are typically designed with a deceleration zone so that traffic can exit the freeway at freeway speeds without obstructing traffic, then have sufficient distance to slow down before any turns.


HighwaysMajorhighwayseg.pngRoadYell.png

There is an Australian national highway network linking the capital cities of each state and other major cities and towns. The national highway network is part financed by the Australian Federal Government with the bulk of funding coming from the individual states.

Each Australian state government maintains their own network of state highways connecting most of the towns in the state. Highways and major roads include Metroads, National Routes, State Routes and routes numbered according to the Alphanumeric Route Numbering System. Some highways in remote areas of Australia are not sealed for high traffic volumes and are not suitable for the whole range of weather conditions. Following heavy rains they may be closed to traffic.

  • Australian Highways should typically have a Major Highway or Minor Highway road type.
  • Highways differ by region.



Major HighwayMajorhighwayseg.png

Maj-hwy.jpg

Purposely built as a major throughway.

  • National Highways
  • Higher speeds. Speed limits should be near or equal to Interstate or Freeway speed limits in the same area. (typically within 5-10mph)
  • Multiple lanes in each direction.
  • Separated directions of travel.
  • Turning traffic is typically limited to specified turn lanes or freeway style ramps to minimize obstructions to thru traffic.
  • Partially limited access with few minor streets intersecting with this road. Intersections are most often with primary roads or other highways.
  • Can have stoplights or freeway style interchanges.
  • No stop signs
  • Pedestrian crossings may be limited.
  • Local business access is often restricted to frontage roads or other streets.

Typically roads with numerous side streets, parking lot accesses, residential driveways, low speed limits, undivided, or shared center turn lanes (suicide lanes) are not Major Highways.

Minor HighwayRoadYell.png

Screen134.png
  • State Highways

While still a labeled route that can be followed to get from one city/town/neighborhood to another, routing of thru traffic is not always a priority in the street design. Some minor highways are built with a higher priority on through traffic, while other minor highways are nothing more than a label dropped onto existing residential streets.

Minor Highways vary widely from large multi-lane roads with stoplights and higher speed limits, to small residential streets with stops signs.

Some minor highways may zigzag thru an area with many turns on local streets.

A Minor Highway thru the main street of a small town often retains focus on local access with pedestrian traffic and on street parking.


RampsRamp.png

RoadPicN2.jpg
HBlue.png
  • All entrance or exits to freeways.
  • A proper freeway style ramp onto or off of a Highway.
  • A change of grade connector for any street type.
  • Not for at grade street connectors.
  • Not for turn lanes.
  • Roads connecting a highway with a rest/service/parking area should be treated as ramps as well and named accordingly (e.g. "Exit to Service Area").


StreetsPrimary street.pngStreet.pngService road.png

Usually for local travel within a town.


Primary StreetPrimary street.png

RoadPicN3.jpg

Major roads or boulevards used to get across a neighborhood or city.

  • Usually given higher priority for right of way with traffic controls.
  • Primary streets may have less residential driveways.
  • A town’s “Main Street,” if it is not a highway, is typically a primary street.
  • In some regions “County Roads” are typically primary streets.

A primary designation is very relative to population and traffic densities. In the smallest rural town, a primary street may barely be wide enough for two cars heading opposite directions to pass each other. In dense urban areas primary streets may need to be a divided road with multiple lanes of traffic in each direction having traffic controls at every intersection.


Service roadService road.png

RoadPicN5b.jpg

Also often known as a frontage road.

  • A smaller street found running alongside a limited access highway or other primary street.
  • Service roads allow local traffic to enter and exit driveways, parking lots, and intersecting streets without congesting thoroughfare traffic.
  • (NOTE: Service Roads should NOT be confused with what is often called a "service alley". Service Roads will not prevent routing.)


StreetStreet.png

RoadPicN4.jpg
  • Any road that traffic will be routed onto.
  • At grade connectors & turn lanes when separated by enough distance from the streets that one is needed for proper GPS tracking.


Other



DirtService road.png

RoadPicN6.jpg

A road that is not paved


Parking Lot RoadService road.png

RoadPicN7.jpg

Parking lots, along with other publicly accessible roads such as alleys that should not be used for traffic routing unless directly at the start or end point of a route.

  • Do not map the rows within parking lots because it clutters the map.
  • With the current high penalty assigned to parking lot segments, Waze will do almost anything other than routing along a parking lot segment unless there is no other path at all. Using parking lot roads for ALL roads within a parking lot is not recommended as this will cause Waze to choose a route which has the least number of parking lot segments, which means it will also choose to go against turn restrictions from main roads.
  • The current recommendation is to use a single parking lot segment for every location which connects to external streets and then use street type segments for all main drive segments within the parking lot itself. This reduces the penalties and Waze will choose better routes within parking lots and not go against turn restrictions. But because that single parking lot segment is there, Waze should not route through the parking lot to get to other destinations.
  • Parking lot roads also provide the benefit of allowing turn restrictions to be properly set upon entry and exit of the parking lot. In addition, the proper use of parking lot roads can also help to avoid automated traffic jam reports as well as Papyrus Map Problems related to Wazers driving in unmapped parking lots. http://www.waze.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=10&t=13825&start=20#p117202



Private RoadService road.png

A private road that should not have any traffic routed along unless directly at the start or end point of a route. Some private roads may have gated or other controlled access points


Non-drivable

Your car should not be here!

  • These may be useful for points of reference when navigating such as seeing on a map where a turn is in relation to a railroad crossing.
  • When Waze users travel on a non-vehicle route such as a bicyclist or mass-transit rider, marking these routes can be useful to explain the GPS traces that result.
  • If a base map scan has non-drivable routes on it, it is important to mark these to prevent traffic routing onto them.
  • Non-drivable routes should not have any type of junction with a drivable road. When crossing a drivable road, the non-drivable road should be bridged across and set at a different level.



Walking TrailsService road.png

RoadPicN9.jpg

Also bike trails


Pedestrian BoardwalksService road.png

RoadPicN10.jpg



StairwayService road.png

RoadPicN11.jpg



RailroadService road.png

Trains, Light Rail (does not appear in Waze client)

Runway/TaxiwayService road.png

For aircraft at airports

Types of segments (Roundabouts) Round.png


RoadPicN8.jpg

Roundabouts have few principals:

The first one, each node on the roundabout can only be connected to no more than one segment.

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

Round2.png

Each connection has a spectrum that exists in order to notify the Client on how to define the message (Go straight, exit through the 2nd / 3rd / 4th exit).

The system will include the radius border from the center and notify the user accordingly.

Legend

Tbl.png

See Also

Highways in Australia