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Country: Poland

Uwaga! W budowie!


  1. Keep it simple — nie komplikuj!
  2. Każda reguła ma wyjątek.
  3. When representing junctions between roads, we sometimes have to blur the lines between the physical and logical worlds.


Oryginalna strona: Junction Style Guide

What is a Junction: A junction is made up of three things:

  1. Two or more road segments
  2. One point where all the segments meet (the junction itself)
  3. Turns allowed or restricted when traveling from one segment to another through that junction point

Diverging Roads

Oryginalna strona: Junction Style Guide

Jct 3 45 ex1.png

Sometimes you will find roads that meet at odd angles. The initial urge will be to represent the junction as it is in the physical world - two lines running into each other at a sharp angle.

Jct 3 45.png

But there are issues with this method. Depending on the angle, the client may give a "Keep Right" or "Exit right" instruction to the driver when a "Turn Right" instruction is more appropriate.

Jct 3 45 curve.png

To eliminate ambiguity, we need to map the junction from a logical point of view. We add some geometry nodes to make the branch road leave the main road at close to 90 degrees, then we gradually curve the road to match the true departure angle.

Crossing Roads

Oryginalna strona: Junction Style Guide

Jct 4 45 ex1.png

We can apply the above approaches to a four-way junction. If we have that street cutting across town at an odd angle, we want to use geometry nodes to bring the actual junction close to 90 degrees.

Jct 4 45 ex.png

You can zoom in and add a single geometry node on each side. With that adjustment in place, the junction will produce predictable turn left/right navigation instructions while the roads still appear to meet at the real-world angle.

Best practices for different types of crossings

Oryginalna strona: Classification of crossings

Crossing SSD.jpg Crossing DDS.jpg Crossing DDD.jpg
Single road crossing a dual road (SSD) Dual road crossing a single road (DDS) 3 Dual roads crossing (DDD)
Crossing DDSS.jpg Crossing DDDD.jpg
2 Dual roads crossing 2 single roads (DDSS) 4 Dual roads crossing (DDDD)

U-turns can be prevented by reducing the length of the segment crossing the median to less than 15m and leaving this segment unnamed.


Oryginalna strona: Soft and hard turns

System kar Waze: When using Waze in navigation mode, it controls routing of traffic using a penalty system. What this means is less desirable roads or turns for through-traffic would have a higher penalty when calculating the route from point A to B. The higher the combined penalty, the less likely the Waze system will want to route through those segments and turns. Therefore it takes the least penalized route combined with relative traffic and distance information.

Ograniczenia skrętów: A junction is created when one segment is connected to another segment. At this junction there are controls for how Waze will navigate through this junction between the segments. These controls appear in the Waze Map Editor (WME) as red and green arrows depending upon whether a particular direction of travel is allowed through that junction. These settings are called turn restrictions.

Strzałka Status skrętu Kara Jak ustawić Więcej informacji
Arrow Red-2.png Stały zakaz Bardzo wysoka W momencie, gdy edytor klika na strzałkę w celu wprowadzenia zmiany z zielonej na czerwoną lub z czerwonej na zieloną i znowu czerwoną Waze najczęściej nie wyznaczy trasy przez taki zakręt
Arrow Red-2-question2.png Wstępny zakaz Wysoka Nowoutworzone zakręty na skutek przyłączenia istniejących segmentów do innych segmentów

Przejmowane z istniejących segmentów podczas przyłączania nowych segmentów

Brak możliwości powrotu do tego stanu, chyba że spełnione są dodatkowe warunki
Arrow Green-2-question2.png Wstępnie dopuszczony Niska Automatycznie ustawiony przez Waze w momencie wykrycia wystarczającej liczby przejazdów przez Wstępnie zakazane zakręty Waze nie zastąpi Stałych zakazów skrętu po wykryciu przejazdów w przeciwnym kierunku
Arrow Green-2.png Stale dopuszczony Bardzo niska W momencie, gdy edytor klika na strzałkę w celu wprowadzenia zmiany z czerwonej na zieloną lub z zielonej na czerwoną i znowu na zieloną Również w momencie zaznaczenia skrzyżowania i naciśnięciu Q a następnie W Skróty klawiszowe (ang.)



Oryginalna strona: Junction Style Guide

When to use ramps

The following conditions must be met for the use of ramps to be appropriate:

  1. Two roads cross over/under each other with no at-grade junction
  2. At least one of the roads are of these types
    1. Minor Highway
    2. Major Highway
    3. Freeway
    4. Ramp

If the above requirements are not satisfied, you may be dealing with an At-Grade Connector.

How complex should ramps be?

Jct ramp no split.png

Rule #1 is still simpler is better. If there is no large distance between paths at the end of a ramp (either into or out of the ramp), a single segment connecting to a single junction node is all that is needed. The existence of a painted, concrete, or grass island is NOT enough of a reason to split a ramp into multiple ramps.

Jct ramp split.png

When paths at the end of the ramp deviate significantly in distance, regardless of the existence of any type of island, then multiple ramps should be used.

At-Grade Connectors

Oryginalna strona: At-Grade Connectors

Should the connector be mapped?

  • When the turn lane physically separates from the main road well in advance of the intersection
  • When the turn lane is far enough from the point of intersection on the map (due to the size of the intersection or the angle at which the roads meet) that the driver might overshoot while waiting for a delayed "turn" audible, or that the Waze client might become confused and disrupt navigation
  • When the area is "busy" enough that the driver may not get any advance warning that a turn is coming up--in which case a connector lets you notify the driver a little earlier
  • When there are user complaints (update requests) that the audible was too late, or that the map should have shown a connector
  • When you get an automated report (map problem) that the roads are too far apart due to the intersection being too far from the turn lane

When in doubt, leave it out. Each connector complicates the map and adds to your workload when the time comes to check connectivity, direction, name, etc.

How to label the connector type

At-grade example1.jpg

The connector segment's type should be set based on the lowest of the types of roads it connects.

Ex: Street to Minor Highway should be Street type.
Ex: Minor Highway to Primary Street should be Primary Street type.
Ex: Primary Street to Primary Street should be Primary Street type.

How to name the connector

In most cases, leaving the segment unnamed will be sufficient. Navigation instructions will simply use the name of the segment to which the connector segment connects.

If there are specific signs at the intersection which are confusing or contrary to the destination road segment name, then a name can be applied to the connector.

Turn restrictions necessary for proper connector routing

Atgrade example3.jpg

A simple right-turn connector between two 2-way streets, requires that the right turn be restricted at both the primary intersection, and at the connector itself so Waze will not be allowed to tell the driver to turn left across the road to get onto the connector.

Atgrade example2.jpg

AND, at the end of the connector, the left turn must be restricted:

Controlling Turn Instructions

Oryginalna strona: How Waze determines turn / keep / exit maneuvers


a) s-in: the segment going into the junction
b) s-out: the segment going out of the junction
c) s1, s2 … sN: all the segments connected to the same junction
d) Best continuation - see expanded below

What is the 'best continuation'?

In order to determine if s-out is the 'real' continuation of s-in, we do the following:
- if s-out has the same road type & street name it is selected as the real continuation.
- if not, we look at the other segments: s3, s4 … sN. One of those will be chosen as a better continuation than s-out if both following conditions are met:

  • this segment has a better match street name & road type wise than s-out (e.g. it has the same street name and s-out doesn't; it has the same road type as s-in, and s-out doesn't). Street name is more important than road type.
  • the angle between this segment and s-in is smaller than the angle between s-out and s-in

The algorithm / list of conditions

The algorithm iterates over a list of conditions. As soon as a condition is met, the relevant instruction is determined, and the algorithm terminates.
The list of conditions:

1. if the junction has only 2 segments, the instruction is: 'CONTINUE'.
1.1. In some cases, T junctions could be considered as only 2 segments. See explanation on 'T junctions' below.

2. if the angle between s-out and the best continuation is larger than 45 degrees (and less than 180), the instruction is: 'TURN RIGHT'
2.1 One assumption is that on primary roads (minor highways, major highways and freeways), we won't have angles which are larger than 45 degrees.

3. if s-out is determined to be the best continuation of s-in (explanation on 'best continuation' below), the instruction is: 'CONTINUE'

4. if s-in is a primary road and s-out is not a primary road, the instruction is: 'EXIT RIGHT'

5. if s-in is a ramp/exit and s-out is neither primary nor ramp/exit, the instruction is: 'EXIT RIGHT'

6. if none of the above conditions is met, the instruction is: 'KEEP RIGHT'